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Volcanic eruption with disastrous effects: eruption and emission of gas and ashes, stone falls (pyroclast), flows of lava, etc. This event includes eruption of sludge volcanoes found in some Caribbean regions.


All movements in the earth’s crust causing any type of damage or negative effect on communities or properties. The event includes terms such as earth tremor, earthquake and vibration.


The term is applied to waves generated by undersea movements (caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or landslides).


Soil liquefaction describes a phenomenon whereby a saturated soil substantially loses strength and stiffness in response to an applied stress, usually earthquake shaking or other sudden change in stress condition, causing it to behave like a liquid.


Lowering or sinking of a portion of the earth's crust. Land subsidence can occur naturally or through human activity. Natural subsidence may occur when limestone, which is easily carved by underground water, collapses, leaving sink holes on the surface, such as in Florida, USA, or Yemen. Earthquakes can also cause subsidence of the land because of the movement of faults.

Coastal erosion

Variations of the coast line and/or maritime zones near the coast. Includes formation and destruction of islands, beaches and sand banks and erosion of cliffs affecting populations, navigation, etc.

Soil Erosion

Washing away of soil down the surface of hill slopes or mass movements due to storm water flow during intense rains or winds. This can cause in turn sedimentation in streams / rivers and areas at the toe of the hills.


Deposits of solid material on hillsides and river beds produced by mass movements, wind, floods or surface erosion with damages on crops, utilities or other infrastructure.